Transformer Core And Transformers core class

In this article, we will discuss the Transformer Core and Transformers core class. Dear Student Wellcome To Academy24x7 is a Global Online Learning Platform. Here You Can Find Your Engineering Academy Study Related Question and answer with Us.

Today We Cover In This Post, the Most Searchable Question in Google. from Electrical Engineering Department. The Question is Transformer Core and Transformers core class, transformer cores are laminated in order to,core type transformer

What Is transformer

The transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another electrical circuit through a magnetic material. the voltage level is either up or down with the help of two windings called primary and secondary winding. The electrical circuit which takes energy from supply mains is called primary winding and the circuit which delivered the output is called secondary winding. Although a transformer can be possible with three winding also (primary, secondary, and tertiary winding) here we have to understand about core so we can learn about the core with two winding transformers also. In a transformer, the frequency is the same for both the primary and secondary sides.

In transformer accepts the windings and input-output many important components are there to learn about and core is one of them. SO in this post, you will get to know about ……

  1. what is the transformer core?
  2. construction of transformer core.
  3. properties of the transformer core.
  4. loss due to transformer core.
  5. Types of the transformer core.
  6. FAQ from the transformer.

What is the transformer core?

The transformer core is a magnetic material that carries the flux from the primary to the secondary winding. The magnetic core is a material with magnetic permeability, which helps confined magnetic flux.

the core is a stack of thin silicon-steel lamination about 0.35 mm thick for 50Hz.

Transformer Core
Transformer Core

Construction of Transformer core

The transformer core is nothing but an iron material that provides the path to flow the flux but it’s not just a piece of metal it is made by thin metal plates. there are a number of  L-shaped iron plates punched together to form the transformer core. the reason behind it if we put a solid metal instead of thin plates there will be eddy current flowing through the core and that will contribute to the loss.

Transformers core class transformer cores are laminated in order to
Transformers core class transformer cores are laminated in order to

Each iron sheet is laminated(0.35mm) by varnish. before punching Annealed is done that is we first heat the material by high temperature and then cold it slowly. To relieve mechanical stress edge of the core is punched because stressed material has a higher core loss.

Shape of transformer core:-  Two types of shapes can be made for transformer core one is cylindrical shape and other is cuboid or box shaped. Now these two types of shapes has their own advantage and disadvantage. Inbox shape core, circumference is more it mean when winding rapped over it more winding will be required but if we take circular shaped then less winding will be required but in cylindrical shaped more iron material required.The conclusion is for same volume,less winding is required for cylindrical shaped. But the twist is we use a shape where we use both the shape to make the core. This combined shape is called CRUCIFORM. In this shape the overall core is cylindrical shaped but this cylindrical shape is made up of  numbers of small square shape. Two formulas are there to calculate area of core…..

Actual area= A1 +2[A2+A3]

Apperent area=Area(circular)

Properties which transformer core should meet

  1. The transformer core should be made up of magnetic material. Nonmagnetic material cant flow flux through them,in order to transfer the flux from primary to the secondary core, must be a magnetic material.
  2. It should be made up of highly permeable material. Permeability is the ability to allow flowing through magnetic material. If core has high permeability then more flux can be goes from primary to secondary otherwise leakge flux will be there.
  3. It should be highly ferromagnetic material.ferromagnetic material attract flux around it at it has low reluctance. Generally iron is used to make the core which is a ferromagnetic material.
  4. Conductivity should be low. If core is a conducting material then there will be a electrical connection between primary and secondary and if current flow through core then it will produce heat loss.The machine can be damaged.
Steps to make perfect core:
  1. Take a iron core material. iron has good conductivity , here we have to decrease conductivity and increase magnetivity.
  2. To increase magneticpropertiesvwe add steel with it.
  3. Add silicon to decrease the conductivity .
  4. to increase the conductivity further , rolling and graining process are hot rolling is prefer .after this process the material is called HRGOS(hot rolled grained oriented steel).
  5. The final step is Cold rolling and graining. after cold rolling conductivity become very low and permeability also become high. The material is called CRGOS(Hot Rolled Grained Oriented Steel).
Transformers core class
Transformers core class

Loss due to transformer core

In transformer core, two loss are there one is because of it conductivity is eddy current loss and another loss is an inherent loss of magnetic material that is hysteresis loss.

Eddy loss: The biggest drawback of magnetic material is all the magnetic material is an electrical conductor. although we tried to reduce the conductivity but we cant nullify the conductivity. When flux is flowing through conducting material eddy current is produced in the material hence eddy loss is introduced. to reduce eddy current loss we laminate the core by varnish.

Hysteresis loss: Although it’s a magnetic loss hysteresis loss can be controlled by controlling the supply voltage and frequencies.

Core type transformer

Types of transformer core material
  • Amorphous Steel: One of the popular options to create the core. these cores are made from several paper-thin metallic tapes, which helps to reduce eddy loss.It can operate efficiently at high temperatures than standard lamination stacks.
  • Solid Iron Core: These cores provide magnetic flux and help retain magnetic field without iron saturation.but these are not recommended for higher frequency AC applications because it produce a large amount of eddy current.
  • Amorphous Metals: Generally these types of core are used in high-performance transformers. They have low conductivity. This type of core also known as vitreous metals.
  • Ferrite Ceramics: These type of materials are made from compound material of iron oxide and other multiple metallic elements. Only used in high-frequency applications. These types of core provide efficient insulation.
  • Silicon Steel : Silicon steel has high resistivity mean conductivity is very low which is an advantage. other than that these types of core require almost no maintenance .Silicon steel provides high saturation flux density. The M6 steel has high permeability and low losses, and it gives efficient operation.

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